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    • Panthera pardus saxicolor

      Alive and dead leopard individuals, leopard skeletons, skulls, flat skins and taxidermy individuals were measured from 2002 to 2006, whereas a countrywide survey was undertaken on the status of the Persian leopard in Iran. Measurements were collected based on the WCS biometry protocol for the large cats. Even though biometry measurements were taken by the same person using calibrated equipments, records obtained from the flat skins and taxidermy individuals are always associated with some errors. However, they may still provide valuable information of the leopard total body size in each area. Leopard skulls were measured using calliper. Earlier, Etemad (1985, in Persian) reported biometric data of the leopard flat skins and skulls collected from various parts of the country. See HERE for general findings of the leopard total body size and skull measurements in Iran.

       

       

                                                

      Fig. 1. Skull of a Persian leopard in Golestan province (Photo: Arezoo Sanei).

       

      Fig. 2. A leopard skeleton in Semnan province (Photo: Arezoo Sanei). Length of this leopard skeleton from tip of the nose to the beginning of the tail collected from Semnan province was measured as 177 cm.

       

      In general, leopard total length (i.e. from tip of the nose to the end of the tail) ranges from about 90 cm to 290 cm. Furthermore, its body weight may range from 28 kg to 90 kg (Kitchener, 1991). Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) particularly in North of Iran is considered among the largest leopard sub-species in the world. As an example, total length of a Malayan adult male leopard in Zoo Negara, Kuala Lumpur was measured as 202 cm. Height of the front shoulder in the same individual was 61 cm and it weighed 47 kg (Sanei, 2010). In Thailand, Grassman, (1999) reported that total length of 2 male leopards were 188 cm and 211 cm with 37 kg and 40 kg weight, respectively. In the same area, total length of a female leopard was measured as 181 cm with 25 kg weight. Alive adult male African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) was measured as 216 cm in total length and 69 in height of the front shoulder. We hypothesized that in Iran leopard body size may reduce considerably from North and North-east of the country to the Southern areas. Sanei and Zakaria, (2011) revealed that average rainfall in the south-eastern parts of the leopard distribution range in the country is less than 118 mm per year while it has a higher annual average temperature compare to the West and North of Iran. Furthermore, Sanei et al., (2011) highlighted 11 sites with higher diversity of leopard potential prey species within the leopard distribution range in the country, whereas 9 sites were located in North and North-east of Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that prey availability, habitat types and climatic factors, e.g. temperature and average rain fall, might be considered as some of the factors affecting leopard biometric variations. It is recommended that in the next steps further studies could be conducted to supplement the data has been presented in this manuscript to study the leopard biometric variations in relation to environmental factors.   

      For more information on the Persian leopard biometry you may see here.

        

      Literature cited

      EtemadI. 1985. Mammals of Iran, volume 2. Department of Environment of Iran, Tehran.

      Grassman Jr.L.I. 1999. Ecology and behaviour of the Indochinese leopard in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society47, 77–93.

      KhorozyanI., Malkhasyan A. & Asmaryan S. 2005. The Persian leopard prowls its way to survival. Endangered Species Update 22, 51-60.

      Kiabi B.H., Dareshouri B.F., Ghaemi R.A. & Jahanshahi M. 2002. Population status of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927) in Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 26, 41-47. 

      Kitchener A. 1991. The Natural History of the Wild Cats. Comstock Publishing Associates, New York. 280 pp.

      Moradi M. 1999. Plan for recognition of natural environment. University of Zanjan (In Persian), Zanjan.

      Sanei A. 2007. Analysis of leopard (Panthera pardus) status in Iran (No.1). Sepehr PublicationCenter, Tehran. 298 p.

      Sanei A. & Zakaria M. 2008. Distribution of Panthera pardus in Iran in relation to its habitat and climate type. Pp. 54. In: Saiful A.A., Norhayati A., Shuhaimi M.O., Ahmad A.K. & Zulfahmi A.R. (Ed.). 3rd Regional symposium on environment and natural resources. Universiti Kebangsan Malaysia, Malaysia.

      Sanei A. & Zakaria M. (in press). Distribution pattern of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock 1927) in Iran. Asia Life Sciences.

      Sanei A., Zakaria M. & Hermidas Sh. (in press, b). Prey composition in the Persian leopard distribution range in Iran. Asia Life Sciences.

       

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    • Persian Leopard National Action Plan

      Participatory Persian Leopard National Action Planning in Iran in now completed

      Together with Department of Environment, we have been in the progress of preparation of the Persian Leopard National Action Plan in Iran. We have developed an innovative model suitable for local conditions and status of the leopard in the country and the work is a participatory process. 

       

      The plan was finalized and endorsed on January 2016 and it is covers the following main subjects:

      (1) Awareness raising, training and empowerment

      (2) Habitat

      (3) Media

      (4) Veterinary and disease

      (5) Rehabilitation centers

      (5) Trans boundary habitats and international cooperation

      (6) Genetic conservation

      (7) Innovative Persian Leopard Insurance Program

      (8) Persian Leopard National Network

      (9) Research, evaluation and monitoring

      (10) Protection unit and wildlife wardens

      (11) Laws and regulations.

       

      Download Endorsement Letter

       

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    Abdoli A., Ghadirian T., Hamidi A.K., Mostafavi H., Moshiri H., Pour’salem S. and Ghoddousi A. 2008. Photo of a Persian leopard from Khaeez area in southern Iran. Cat News 48: 14.

     

    Chalani M. 2005. Analysis of leopard diet in Tandoureh National Park. BSc. thesis. Markazi: Azad University of Arak.

     

    Gavashelishvili A. and Lukarevskiy V. 2008. Modelling the habitat requirements of leopard Pan­thera pardus in west and central Asia. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 579-588.

     

    Ghoddousi A., Hamidi Kh. A., Ghadirian T., Ashayeri D. and Khorozyan I. 2010. The status of the endangered Persian leopard Panthera pardus saxicolor in Bamu National Park, Iran. Oryx 4 (4): 551-557.

     

    Ghoddousi A., Hamidi Kh. A.H., Ghadirian T., Ashayeri D., Moshiri H. and Khorozyan I. 2008. The status of the Persian leopard in Bamu National Park, Iran. Cat News 49: 10-13.

     

    Ghoddousi A., Khaleghi Hamidi A., Ghadirian T., Ashayeri D., Hamzehpour M., Moshiri H., Zohrabi H. and Julayi L. 2008b. Territorial marking by Persian leopard (Panthera par­dus saxicolor Pocock, 1927) in Bamu National Park, Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 44: 101-103.

     

    Joslin P. 1990. Leopards in Iran. 1989 International Leopard Studbook: 13-15.

     

    Khorozyan I. 2010. Leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Red Data Book of Animals of the Republic of Armenia (Aghasyan A. and Kalashyan M., eds.). Yerevan, Ministry of Nature Protection: 344.

     

    Khorozyan I.G. and Abramov A.V. 2007. The leopard, Panthera pardus, (Carnivora: Felidae) and its resilience to human pressure in the Caucasus. Zoology in the Middle East 41: 11-24.  

     

    Khorozyan I.G., Baryshnikov G.F. and Abramov A.V. 2006. Taxonomic status of the leopard, Pan­thera pardus (Carnivora, Felidae) in the Caucasus and adjacent areas. Russian Journal of Theriology 5 (1): 41-52.

     

    Khorozyan I., Malkhasyan A. and Asmaryan S. 2005. The Persian leopard prowls its way to survival. Endangered Species Update 22: 51-60.

     

    Khorozyan I.G., Malkhasyan A.G., Asmaryan S.G. and Abramov A.V. 2010. Using geographical mapping and occupancy modeling to study the distribution of the critically endangered leopard (Panthera pardus) population in Armenia. In: “Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation” (Cushman S. and Huettmann F., eds.). Tokyo, Springer Publishers: 331-347.

     

    Kiabi B.H., Dareshouri B.F., Ghaemi R.A. and Jahanshahi M. 2002. Population status of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927) in Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 26: 41-47. 

     

    Lukarevsky V., Akkiev M., Askerov E., Agili A., Can E., Gurielidze Z., Kudaktin A.N., Malkhasyan A. and Yarovenko Yu.A. 2007. Status of the leopard in the Caucasus. Cat News Special Issue 2: 15-21.

     

    Mobargha M. 2006. Habitat evaluation of Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Turan National Park, Iran. MSc thesis. Tehran: Azad University.

     

    Omidi M., Kaboli M., Karami M., Salman Mahini A. and Hasan Zadeh Kiabi B. 2010. Modelling of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) habitat suitability in Kolah-Ghazi National Park using ENFA. Science and Environmental Technology 12 (1): 137-148. (in Persian)

     

    Rozhnov V.V., Lukarevsky V.S. and Sorokin P.A. 2011. Using molecular genetic characteristics under reintroduction of the leopard (Panthera pardus L., 1758) in the Caucasus. Doklady Akademii Nauk 437 (2): 280-285. (in Russian)

     

    Sanei A. 2004. Analysis of leopard status in Iran. BSc. thesis. Tehran: Azad University.

     

    Sanei A. 2007. Analysis of leopard (Panthera pardus) status in Iran (No.1). Tehran: Sepehr Publication Centre. (in Persian)

     

    Sanei A. and Zakaria M. 2008. Distribution of Panthera pardus in Iran in relation to its habitat and climate type. In: 3rd Regional Symposium on Environment and Natural Resources (Saiful A., Norhayati M.O., Shuhaimi A.K. and Zulfahmi A.R., eds.). Selangor, Universiti Kebangsan Malaysia: 54.

     

    Sanei A. and Zakaria M. 2011. Distribution pattern of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran. Asia Life Sciences Supplement 7: 7-18.

     

    Sanei A. and Zakaria M. 2011b. Survival of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran: primary threats and human-leopard conflicts. Asia Life Sciences Supplement 7: 31-39.

     

    Sanei A., Zakaria M. and Hermidas Sh. 2011. Prey composition in the Persian leopard distribution range in Iran. Asia Life Sciences Supplement 7: 19-30.

     

    Sinclair, A.R.E., Fryxell, J.M. and Caughley, G. 2006. Wildlife ecology, conservation and management. Massachusetts: Blackwell publishing. 469 pp.

     

    Sherbafi E. 2010. Analysis of leopard diet in the habitats of Golestan NP. MSc thesis. Tehran: Azad university.

     

    Youssefi M.R., Hoseini Sh., Hoseini S.M., Zaheri B.A. and Abouhosseini Tabari A. 2010. First report of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor). Iranian Journal of Parasitology 5(1): 61-63.

     

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    Asian Leopard Specialists Group large-scale mission is to assess and record status of the Asian leopard sub-species from time to time in co-operation with local researchers, universities and organizations with respect to the national and international laws and regulations. We also aim to provide an opportunity for the leopard researchers in various countries to share the technical knowledge and practical experiences concerning both research and conservation methodologies that may help protecting the leopards in each region. Moreover, learning various aspects of the leopard ecology in the various ecosystems is of our main interests.

    We invite the Asian-leopard researchers from various countries to join us by submitting the membership form and receive recent news and electronic Asian-leopard newsletter. Persons from Iran, could join us in Persian Leopard National Portal and knowledgable individuals from other countries may submit their observations, records and research information to the Asian Leopard Online Portal.

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